CHKDSK is a utility developed by Microsoft Corporation that checks the hard disks for errors and repairs them. The complete name of the CHKDSK utility is Check Disk. You can run it on different partitions of your hard disk. If you are experiencing some errors on your system and you have a doubt that the error may be due to a corrupted hard drive, you can confirm it by running CHKDSK on your Windows 10 PC. In this post, we will describe how to run CHKDSK on Windows 10.
You can run CHKDSK from the Command Prompt. But before you run it, you should know the meaning of the CHKDSK parameter that you use. If you use the CHKDSK command without any parameters, it displays only the status of your hard drive but does not take any action to repair it. Hence, if you want CHKDSK to repair your hard drive errors, you have to run it with parameters.
What are the different CHKDSK parameters?
Though there are many CHKDSK parameters, here, we will describe the /f, /r, /x, or /b parameters. These parameters are used with the CHKDSK utility to repair disk errors or corruption. Each of these parameters is used for different purposes. Let’s see.
- The /f parameter: The /f parameter in the CHKDSK command is used to repair the drive for logical errors. In simple words, the logical error is data corruption on a hard drive. There are many causes of data corruption. The most common cause of data corruption is sudden power failure. When you run CHKDSK on Windows 10 with the/f parameter, first, it locks the selected hard drive and then scans it for errors.
- The /r parameter: The /r parameter is used to locate the bad sectors on a hard drive. Once CHKDSK finds the bad sectors, it repairs them.
- The /x parameter: The /x parameter also includes the functionality of the /f parameter. Apart from this, this parameter also invalidates the open handles on a hard drive. The /x parameter forces a disk volume to unmount (if necessary).
- The /b parameter: You can use the /b parameter with the NTFS file system only. When you run CHKDSK on Windows 10 with the /b parameter, it clears all the lists of bad clusters on the selected disk volume. After that, the command rescans all the allocated and free clusters on the same disk volume for errors. The /b parameter also includes the functionality of the /r parameter. If you encounter any error after imaging a volume to a new hard drive, you can run the CHKDSK command with the /b parameter.
How to run CHKDSK on Windows 10
Above, we have explained the use of four CHKDSK parameters. These parameters are most commonly used to repair hard drive errors. Now, let’s see how to use CHKDSK on Windows 10.
The steps to run the CHKDSK utility are as follows:
1] Click on the Windows 10 Search bar.
2] Type cmd.
3] Right-click on the Command Prompt app and select Run as administrator. Click Yes if you get a UAC prompt.
4] Now, type chkdsk along with the parameter /f or the parameter /r. If you want to repair your drive from logical errors, you have to use the /f parameter. On the other hand, if you want to repair your hard drive from bad sectors, use CHKDSK with the /r parameter.
The format of typing the command is as follows:
chkdsk d: /f
In the above command, the letter “d” denotes the hard drive. Hence, if you want to run CHKDSK on C drive, you have to type the letter “c” in place of the letter “d.”
Do note that, you have to close all the files and programs before running the CHKDSK utility. You may receive the following message when you run CHKDSK:
Chkdsk cannot run because the volume is in use by another process. Would you like to schedule this volume to be checked the next time the system restarts? (Y/N)
This message means that there is a process running in the background due to which Windows cannot execute the CHKDSK command. In this case, you have to type Y and hit Enter. This will run the CHKDSK command when you turn on your computer the next time.
Which is better: CHKDSK R or F?
We have explained the use of both of these CHKDSK parameters. The R parameter helps repair the disk for errors, whereas, the F parameter helps locate and repair the bad sectors. You can also use both of these parameters together. Doing so will repair both errors and bad sectors on the selected hard disk volume. If you want to use both of these parameters together, you have to type the following command and press Enter.
chkdsk C: /f /r
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